Peru is a country of extraordinary variety of living resources and ecosystems, which today are known as biological diversity or biodiversity.

Our country is among the diverse countries of the planet, which occupies one of the top five.The diversity of genetic resources is an achievement of aboriginal human groups, that during the process of at least 10 000 years have domesticated species of wildlife and native plants that have been selected and adapted to the ecological. Peru is one of the largest global genetic resources, with about 182 species of plants and 5 of domesticated animals, and is recognized as one of the centers of origin of agriculture and livestock. Peru is a country of great global importance for having given the world cultivars and breeds of high value, especially potatoes and corn, which are two of the four most important food crops in the world. Genetic resources in the country are of strategic importance to the modern world and Peru in this aspect plays and may play a decisive role. From the flora is calculated that there are about 25 000 species (10% of world total), of which 30% are endemic. It is the 5th country in the world in number of species, and one of the first in number of plant species known properties and used by the population (4400 species). The largest family of plants is the orchid, of which are present in the country more than 3000 species. As regards the 462 species of mammals, birds 1815, 395 reptiles, amphibian 408, 2 000 and 4 000 fish butterflies.

It is the first country in potato varieties (9 domesticated species and some 3000 varieties) of chili (five domesticated species and dozens of varieties), corn (36 ecotypes), grains, tubers and Andean roots. It is the largest center of cotton genetic diversity of South American or Peruvian cotton (Gossypium barbadense), which is an input of genetic material essential for the improvement of cultivated cottons like Pima and tangüis. It has a very high place in fruits (623 species), cucurbits, medicinal plants (1408 species) and ornamental (1600 species), and food plants (about 1200 species). Features 5 shapes of pets: alpaca, domestic form of the vicuña (Lama vicugna) and cross flame flame domestic form of the guanaco (Lama guanicoe), the guinea pig, domestic form of poronccoy (Cavia tschudii), the duck Creole Duck domestic form Amazon (cairina moschata) and cochineal (Dactilopius coccus).

In Peru there has been a long process of domestication of plants and animals, and our country is one of the world centers of origin of agriculture and livestock. In Peru there are about 182 species of native domesticated plants, of which 174 are of Andean, Amazonian and coastal, and 7 of American origin, introduced centuries ago. The Amazonian origin are 85 species, accounting for 46.96% of the total. The Andean origin are 81 species, and account for 44.75%. The source 8 species are costeño, 4.43% of the total.


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